Heat the olive oil in a dutch oven or other heavy soup pot over medium heat. Add the onion, garlic, celery, carrots, bay leaf, thyme, salt, and pepper and sauté until softened, and just about to start browning.
At this point, add the chicken stock, cabbage, ham, and butter beans and stir to combine. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat to a simmer. Cover and let cook for 45 minutes, until some of the beans have broken down slightly to thicken the soup, and the cabbage is cooked through. Turn off the heat and stir in the parsley and apple cider vinegar.
Ladle into deep soup bowls, top with parmesan and freshly grated parmesan cheese, and serve with baguette slices.